It's not necessarily appropriate to
define what “TSUJIGAHANA” is because there are few remaining data
and existing kosode (short-sleeved kimono), but tsuji-ga-hana may
be defined as “what is used on the premise of tie-dyeing with drawing
pictures, impressing foil, and embroidering”.
Tie-dyeing, which forms the basis of tsujigahana, has been traditional
way of dyeing from Nara Period in Japan. There are various ways
from those of basic and easy such as tying and bundling to those
of difficult such as sawing outline of design and tying, and dyeing
in different colors. The latter one is called “koukechi”, which
is the way that prevents dye stuff from penetrating a textile.
In concrete terms, advanced techniques, such as complicated sawing,
tying and tightening, and take-kawa-shibori (tying with a bamboo
leaf), are used. In the case of making dappled cloth, which has
tiny pattern, we only need to tie textiles with a thread, but when
to make big design, the techniques of maki-age-shibori (coiling
up tying) and take-kawa-shibori are used. When we dye textiles in
different colors, the technique of oke-shibori (tying with tub)
is the way that protect against dyeing by coiling up a part. Take-kawa-shibori
is the way that protect against dyeing by covering a part with a
bamboo leaf. Bamboo leaves are now replaced by easy-to-use plastic.
Oke-shibori is the way that protect against dyeing by putting a
part in a tub.
The name “tsuji-ga-hana” first emerged on a literature
in the late 15th century. A literature says in 1596, Toyotomi Hideyoshi
presented tsujigahana to an emissary from Ming as his/her farewell
present. Tsuji-ga-hana, which range from simple tie-dyeing to impressing
foil and embroidered gorgeous one, became fashionable in the public
after a century from its birth. Simultaneously, the name “tsujigahana”
seemed to have become popular as we associate kimono with “Yuzen”.
As we see in kosode of katsurame (woman merchant), battle surcoat,
remaining kimono in Tokugawa, and so on, the height was about from
the Momoyama period to the Edo period. By improvement of Yuzen dyeing,
tsuji-ga-hana lost its significance of existence and died out in
course of time.
Recent years, though “tsujigahana” has been becoming public knowledge
by receiving media exposure, it seems that tsuji-ga-hana is merely
one of the designs; however, “tsujigahana” is consistently “tie-dyeing”.
Tsujigahana is the technique which maximizes essential beauty
of tie-dyeing by drawing pictures and impressing foil.